Risk Factors In International Trade

Although process automation facilitates better management international trade risks, latent risks still exist. Implementation of technologies not withstanding, international trade risks need to be managed in real time and on a totalitarian basis. The first of such risks is ramifications the slump in US economy can instill due to housing market crash. Volatility of financial markets with renewed oil market threats could trigger inflation and hikes in interest rates. The third most significant risk is the heightened scrutiny of exports due to security concerns, which makes managing international trade risks harder.

On the other hand, exporters’ risks include insolvency of the importer, protracted default in which the importer fails to pay off the due within the legal period after the due date and risk of rejection. On a far sight, export ban, possibilities of war, changes to the law/tariff or even confiscation of importers’ properties also count as major possible risks in an international trade.

-Possible Steps to International Trade Risk Mitigation

International banks provide with expert support and service to conduct international trade and international transactions rather safely.

Getting paid in an international trade is a different thing due to a number of factors that influence it. One must note that no amount of planning can entirely eliminate the payment risks in international trade and carefully resorting to your preferred mode of payment and hedging the risks besides securing proper credit insurance and credit checks on your customers before engaging with your trading partner is the safest way out.

-Regional Trade Organizations

International trade related disputes are resolved by the World Trade Organization which is a multilateral agency because it sets the rules that govern the global trading. There exist a few regional trade organizations but regulative powers are limited with them. Some quarters have raised fears that regional trade organizations can be used against them, which on the contrary has contributed to a messier situation.

-Availing Credit Can Help Mitigate Some Risks

One way to safeguard international trade is via credit insurance policy with multiple covers such as the potential insolvency through which the customer provides reimbursement, although to a limit. Products like Bills for Collection (BC) and Letters of Credit (LC) come in very handy in international trade situations. An LC is a bank-to-bank commitment of payment favoring the exporter and guaranteeing the payment against presentation of certain compliant documents. Both BC and LC are governed by regulations from ICC.

Currency Trading And Money Laundering

Money Laundering is a big topic these days in Foreign Exchange circles. The criminal or terrorist element is almost certainly participating in that high tech world. You have probably heard or read of somebody being arrested for this recently.

Money laundering is the process a criminal uses to distance themselves from the proceeds of their crime, yet maintain access to the funds. Most basically, a criminal attempts to take enough steps with the money that it is untraceable to the crime.

Laundering generally takes three distinct stages:

* Placement: Smurfers are used to introduce the dirty money into the system, these smurfers change the form of the money numerous times until the launderer feels the original funds cannot be traced back to them.
* Layering: Layering involves the changing of cash into drafts, money orders, traveler’s checks etc. Launderers ensure each transaction is under reporting laws; so many smaller transactions are made instead of fewer large transactions. This way each transaction looks legitimate and no paper trail is created.
* Integration: Once the money has changed form several times, the launderer has buried the trail of its origination. At this point it is impossible to trace the funds back to the original crime. The launderer is now able to introduce the funds back into use, often through a front company.

Reputable currency traders are concerned about money laundering. Being non-bank Financial Services Companies, makes currency traders susceptible to money launderers. Involvement in money laundering can result in fines, criminal charges, loss of reputation and loss of business to the currency trader. In some cases where the money laundering is for terrorism purposes, the results can be catastrophic.

How do currency traders prevent money laundering? Without going into too much detail, reputable currency traders will get to know you very well before proceding to set up an account or allowing any transactions to take place. Traders will also get to know your beneficiaries very well. The whole process is designed to eliminate any doubt about who is involved in any transactions and what they are transacting.

The good news is that much of what currency traders will ask you is designed to protect your interest as well. If you are doing business with someone in a foreign country, you want to make sure you are going to get paid for your goods or services. You also want to make sure that the foreign business actually exists as claimed. And you also want to make sure the foreign business has a bank account in good standing. These are all things the currency trader will guarantee for you.

How To Handle A Bank Robbery

Unfortunately, bank robberies are all too common in the United States. Reports estimate that a bank is robbed roughly once an hour. Luckily, due to new banking practices, bank robberies don’t net nearly as much now as they did in years past, which can deter would-be criminals from targeting banks. However, it’s a good a idea to know what steps to take if you are caught in the middle of a bank robbery. All banks train their employees on how to deal with a bank robbery, but you, as a customer of the bank, should also know what to do should the occasion arise.

First, know that no banks carry as much money as they have in years past. They don’t keep vaults full of money like the banks pictured in movies, because it is simply not safe. In theory, that should make them less of a target. However, the time might come where you are caught in the middle of a bank robbery. First, don’t panic. Remember that your money is insured, so the only thing to worry about in the situation is your safety. Remember that the ultimate goal is to get the criminal out of the bank, so letting him have what he wants, as well as allowing the bank employees to do their jobs by enacting their protocol for robberies, is important. Remember that banks have safeguards put in place, like bank bags, that only one or two employees can access. This money may be safe by simply not having anyone in house to access it.

As for your job, do your best to look at the bank robber and try and remember his physical description, what he or she is wearing, their height and weight, as well as any other defining physical features. You might also be able to spot the type of car he or she is driving as well as a license plate. These things will all help when the police arrive at the crime scene. In most cases, the bank employees will comply with the bank robber for the safety of their customers and it is imperative that you do the same.
If going into banks makes you wary, take advantage of the outdoor banking kiosks available for you. You can even make cash and coin deposits at any time during the day or night using a zippered bank bag and a night deposit slot found on the outside of the building. All of these transactions can be done from the safety of your car and save you the hassle of going inside the actual building.

Green Investment Trends

If finance experts are to be believed, green investment is still worth despite the global economic blues. Sustainable investment options are set to become more attractive in the long run with the incorporation of the eco-stimulus. Currently, green stocks are showing stable returns on investments and investors who care about how and where their money is being used are opting for the “go green” option.

Investment can be a great way of making money if done in a logical and systematic manner. In the last few years, significant changes have been visible in the interest of investors across the world. Other than oil and gas, interest has deviated to sources of energy as it causes less harm to the environment and society. Thanks to the increased awareness on sustainable investment opportunities, several companies across the world are realizing the importance to preserve and protect the planet. In the form of a contemporary type of stock investment, green investments are becoming popular for the investors who want to use it as a source of helping the earth and the atmosphere.

There is no significant difference in green investment and stocks and mutual funds. The difference lies in the fact that green investment is made in companies committed to conservation of natural resources. These companies are actively involved in producing sources of alternative energy, clean water and air projects and products and services that bring a significant change to the communities and environment.

As far as sustainable investment is concerned, green based projects are the main concern. Even though this movement includes companies that are into other lines of business, organizations that have modified their operations for running environment-conscious business can also be included in it. For the next several decades, green building, recycling and water will be the strongest growth points. Earlier this year when the market was up for 21{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} in March, market for green stocks rose to 30{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741}. As part of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009, approximately 14{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} is comprised of clean energy and efficiency.

Banking Dissertation Help Free Tips And Topics

Banking Dissertations are considered to be one of the most complex types of theses that students may come across. In order to trounce the complications involved in writing a bank dissertation, a scholar should have an understanding of these problems at first.

Writing a Dissertation on Banking

To start with writing your thesis on banking you have to first have a grasp on banking dissertation topics. A topic determines a direction for you to move in. The following suggestions would give you some ideas for your thesis on banking and from these you may also come up with your own dissertation topics.

? Islamic Banking in Europe

? A Dissertation on Investment Banking

? The Usefulness of Internet Banking

? Concept and Evolution of International Banking

? Understanding Banking and Finance and the Geopolitical Influences

Now suppose if you choose to write an Islamic banking dissertation. For this topic you need to understand the meaning and purpose of Islamic banking itself. Only with complete understanding and knowledge of the subject will enable you to write your term paper. You may also choose to write banking and finance dissertation with a view on its geopolitical influences.

Some Useful Tips

Apart from doing research, you could also use bank dissertation help from experts in the field. However, if you choose an easier option, here are some tips that would certainly help you write a good thesis.

Discuss existing banking practices in detail and provide examples based on your research to authenticate the discussion. You may also take the current global economic slump for your topic and prepare an argument on the factors prompting such economic decline.

While writing your research paper always remember that dissertations or term papers act as the ideas and opinions of the author which are connected with facts and premise from reliable sources.

The New Modification Craze With Interesting Car Wraps

Vinyl wraps, as we all know, are synonymous with advertising. Organizations produce usage of vehicle wraps for branding, branding which helps raise the profile of their corporation. While advertising with these wraps are full on the go, the completely new craze just for car modification has largely inclined towards car wraps for the entire car makeover. Folks are finding their car wrapped with vinyl films to present it a different finish as well as color. This craze has emerged lately due to the monotony which eventually slips in while driving the equivalent vehicle just for long. Not all of us can afford a completely new car every time a interesting model gets launched in the industry. This is a simple way of giving your old car, a brand-new appear, and also giving yourself a boost to drive it with interest.

The very best Car Wraps use the latest process in print production. The qualified gurus use a car as a blank canvas to fill it in with their artwork. They can customize your car in whichever way you want. It is like obtaining a brand completely new car, just at a a lot lower expenditure. You actually might be thinking which a personalized spray paint job might also bring in the identical effect at a lower expenses, so why invest in wraps? While your question is quite relevant, the answer is also proper in front of you actually. A wrap is nothing but a thin film which lays out on the top of your cars factory skin. It gives a second skin for the car, thus protecting the original color of it. You actually can take off a wrap whenever you want to. The inner color will be revealed in its intact state. You actually can also replace an old wrap with a brand new one according to your mood and craze.

Vinyl car wraps of top quality have warranty of about 5 to 7 years. So, you actually could keep it just for long, until something else comes in the craze. The original paint gets shielded from chipping or fading, which also slows down the course of action of depreciation. This can support you actually get a far better cost while reselling the car. A full wrap just for your car will expenditure you actually around some thousand bucks. Earlier, modifications adopted by car whizzes are a lot costlier than this, which included personalizing amount plates, transforming tires, adding spoilers, etc.

Facts About Ing Vysya Bank Recruitment 2013 And Other Bank Recruitment Programs

Many young people want to work in banks because bank jobs come with a number of facilitates. For instance, bank jobs provide a lot of security and opportunity to advance one’s career. The importance of banks in the life of people has increased many folds over the years. Initially most of the banks were concentrated in the urban regions. However, they have now turned their attention towards the rural areas as well, and hence they are rapidly expanding their boundaries. The banks that function is rural areas mainly concentrate on helping the farmers.

Previously most of the banks were organizing their own recruitment programs however at present a common exam named IBPS is being organized. Being IBPS certified is like getting a ticket to the recruitment programs of different banks, especially the government banks. The Institute of Banking Personnel Selection Test or IBPS test, as it is being abbreviated, takes place twice every year in the country. A person, who has a good score in the IPBS exam stands more change of being recruited by a reputed nationalized or government bank.

The requirement programs undertaken by many banks like ING Vysya Bank Recruitment 2013 are targeting to hire young and talented people who are hardworking, loyal and dedicated. These banks offer pleasant and suitable working atmosphere with efficient co-workers and lucrative payment packages along with lots of other benefits. The eligibility criteria for most of the bank recruitment programs like the State Bank of Hyderabad Recruitment 2013 are not very stringent. The key factor that can help a person to crack the IBPS bank exam is regular practice, presence of mind and proper utilization of time. However, it is important to remember that cracking the IBPS exam is not enough, a person should also aim at a getting good score in this particular exam.

There is a good number of Gramin Banks in India, and the Gramin Bank Recruitment 2013 is hiring a large number of people. The recruitment programs of most of the government banks facilitate some special advantages to people who fall under the categories of SC, ST, or OBC, because these banks want to give the people belonging to backward classes a fair chance to build a good career. In the present day scenario, for getting recruited in a bank a person needs to be good in mathematical calculations, he should have adequate knowledge in computers, he should be aware of the various national and international events taking place all around the world etc. After getting recruited in a bank a person can appear for internal bank exams to advance his career. For instance, a person who has been recruited in a bank as a probationary clerk can appear for internal bank exams that will promote him to the post of an officer after working with the same bank for a few years. Therefore, it wont be wrong to say that bank jobs can be very rewarding in the long run.

Using Public Short Ratio Or Psr To Trade

Public Short Ratio (PSR), also known as non-member short ratio, can be a helpful indicator to trade stock markets. It is used by many traders to find trading opportunities and to predict market movements. Public short ratio is defined as the ratio between public short selling number and total short selling number.

PSR = Total public short sells/total short sells.

The PSR ratio is disclosed by markets on a daily basis. High PSR values shows that the public are more bearish and low PSR values shows the public are more bullish. Although the ratio itself is an easy-to-use indicator, most traders use this ratio as a 10 day moving average. This makes interpretations easier and offer better flexibility. 25{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} of moving average is taken as the crossing point. When ever the 10-day moving average is above 25{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741}, the market is considered bullish and when ever the moving average is below 25{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741}, the market is considered bearish. The more the ratio stays above/below the 25{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} level, the more the chance of market reversal.

The basic idea behind public short ratio is public or retail traders are the worst short sellers; when compared to institutional traders and exchange member short sellers. So it is a good strategy to buy whenever public short and sell whenever go. Although sounds awkward the strategy has a high success history, especially for swing traders and long-term traders.

Advantages of public short ratio include 1) its is simple and easy-to-use, 2) has a good success history, 3) it is suitable for most traders, 4) offer better results when combined with other indicators, 5) has support available in most trading platforms and 6) is scalable with user demands.

Disadvantages of PSR include 1) it is less effective of short-term traders like day traders, 2) there is a good amount of risk associated with it, 3) the strategy does not work always as there can be situations where public are right, 4) the strategy may not work in high-volatile markets and 5) is not so suited for novice traders, especially who are not certain about minimizing their downside risks and hedging their positions.

Running A Profitable Personal Finance Blog

Nowadays most internet users are familiar with the concept of online blogs. Indeed many people will now have their own blog, whether it’s a personal blog or a blog discussing a certain subject. However in this article I want to outline the various different ways you can generate a decent income from a finance-related blog.

Personal finance is one of those subjects where you will never run out of things to talk about because there are always lots of new products being launched and lots of news stories you can cover. For example you can discuss budgeting, credit cards, loans, mortgages, pensions, property, saving, share trading, taxation, etc.

Each of these subjects is potentially very profitable in it’s own way. The key to success is to pick a subject you enjoy talking about and then decide which type of revenue model(s) you are going to use on your blog. You basically have three separate options.

Firstly you can join Google Adsense or indeed any of the major pay-per-click companies. This will enable you to place blocks of ads on your blog and earn money every time one of your visitors clicks on one of these ads. In the finance niche this can be highly profitable because you can sometimes earn several dollars per click.

Another option is to sell ad space directly to any interested parties. This will often be significantly more profitable because you don’t need to split the revenue received with any other ad network. The great thing about this approach is that you can earn money up front, which allows you to plough money back into your blog straight away.

The final option is to become an affiliate marketer and promote various different products on your blog. This is often seen as being the most profitable income-generating model because in the finance niche there are all kinds of different products and services you can promote.

For instance you can promote stock brokers, forex brokers, bank accounts, savings accounts, trading software, etc. You can even promote some of the premium training courses if you so wish which offer very generous affiliate commissions in most cases, often as high as 20-30{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} per sale.

So the point I want to get across is that there are several ways you can earn a decent income from a financial blog. The key to success is to work on building as much traffic as you possibly can. Once you’ve done that you can then experiment with each method and discover which one is most likely to earn you the most revenue.

Small Business Bank – How Specialized Banking Works for You

If you’re opening a small business, you need a small business bank, pure and simple. Using your regular bank won’t net you the benefits that a specialized banking account can come with. No matter who you choose as a host for your banking needs, you always need to open a new account for a business. Never use your personal bank account as this can make it next to impossible to discern your business income and expenses from more personal sources. Always choose a new account, and look for a specialized bank whenever possible. The right bank will have a deep understanding of your business needs.

One of the most important features of a small business bank is an assortment of affordable banking solutions. Money is usually tight when you’re starting out. You don’t want to have a high minimum amount on your account that you can’t possibly sustain. If you need to make a large withdrawal for business purposes, you should know that you can do so without jeopardizing your bank account. It’s also important that you’re able to make deposits and withdrawals without a lot of fees. The right business bank will work with you so that you can maximize your profits early on.

Small businesses today are far different than what they were in the past. A mom and pop shop used to be a brick and mortar store with an easily-defined address and actual location. Today, many businesses are run online. You could be running your business from locations all over the country, or all over the globe. You can’t always work with the bank down the street. You need a small business bank that will go with you everywhere you happen to be. Online banking, mobile banking, and more are essential for a business banking account. You don’t want to be tied down to one location, and with the right account you won’t be.

When you’re getting ready to open a new banking account for your business, it’s important to take the time to do your research. Look into a variety of banking opportunities to find the small business bank that’s right for you. When you look at other offers, you’re sure to notice where the best deal really lies. It’s important to understand what’s out there so you don’t get sucked into the first well-worded advertisement you see. Compare your options and look for a small business banking account that provides all the services, benefits, and convenience you need to make your company a success.

Can Spirit Play A Role In Financial Success

At quick glance, whether or not a person experiences financial success in life may seem arbitrary. Some people seemed to have earned it through hard work, while others were handed money on a silver platter. Still others engage in unscrupulous tactics to achieve it and many of them ultimately pay the price. While we struggle to support ourselves, we wonder why we were not selected to experience financial riches.

The truth is, our life is what we make it. We can climb the corporate ladder while working for someone else or we can create our own destiny in a different way, by becoming entrepreneurs. Either one may offer intrinsic and financial reward, depending on who we are. Some people are not content to be restricted by a corporate structure and choose to embark on their own ventures. Though this is often an admirable move, success is not guaranteed.

Starting a small business is expensive and most entrepreneurs spend some sleepless nights wondering how they will pay the bills. Along the way, these individuals rely strongly on their core beliefs, one of which is often a strong sense of faith. Even those who started with little spiritual values may come to believe in a higher being who guides them down the right path. They place their trust in something outside of themselves, hoping it will make their career more rewarding.

Some people have seen what faith can do first-hand and they share their experience with others. By providing the lessons they learned and explaining the life-altering change they made, they hope to help other people transform their own lives. Many of them believe that being blessed with the success they have requires that they share the method of realizing it with the public.

This sharing, they believe, is their calling and duty, the price they must pay for their riches. In reality, it is not a sacrifice because every time they show others how to be more successful, they feel an internal satisfaction. What better thing can a person do than help someone else realize a dream? Even the most stubborn audience can take away valuable lessons from this conversation.

Whatever our faith is at this point may undergo a radical transformation when we find ourselves on the receiving end of such a powerful message. As we embark on our own journey to put ourselves in the financially secure category, we may remember this information and incorporate it into our lives. When we achieve financial security, it will be our turn to share the valuable lesson with others.

blood banks – Benefits of Cord Blood Banking

Cord blood stem cells have already been used in treating over 20,000 patients for a wide range of diseases, including types of leukemia and immune system illnesses. Cord blood stem cell treatment is still considered experimental and scientists continue to research its uses in treating other diseases like cerebral palsy, stroke, and diabetes. As further scientific breakthroughs are made, the potential for using cord blood stem cells to treat a variety of diseases and conditions may continue to increase. The first documented clinical use of cord blood stem cells was in the successful treatment of a six-year-old boy afflicted by Fanconi anemia in 1988. Since then, cord blood banking has become increasingly recognized as a source of stem cells that can be used in stem cell therapy.

Recent studies have shown that cord blood has unique advantages over traditional bone marrow transplantation, particularly in children, and can be life-saving in rare cases where a suitable bone-marrow donor cannot be found. Approximately 50{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} of patients requiring a bone marrow transplant will not find a suitable donor within a critical period. In certain instances, there may be some medical issues around using one’s own cells drawn from their cord blood storage, as well as availability of cells, which will require treatments done using cells from another donor, with the vast majority being unrelated donors. However, studies have shown that stem cells from cord blood banking can also be used for siblings and other members of the family who have a matching tissue type. Siblings have up to a 75{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741} chance of compatibility, and the cord blood may even be a match for parents (50{4037a4115ab1b16dbdf0520c31fde254895a0c19cf7356f26c2da43a48ccb741}) and grandparents.

Parents often ask what a cord blood Collection Kit exactly is. A collection kit stores and protects cord blood for delivery to a cord blood bank. These kits vary from bank to bank, and they commonly feature temperature stabilizers, reinforced casings that provide breakage protection, and specialized collection bags for containing cord blood. It’s important to take your kit with you to the hospital, as the staff there will not provide you with one should you forget to bring it. With regards to choosing a reputable bank, it is important to take the time to consider these key questions: Has the bank registered with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and met all necessary state regulatory requirements? Is it accredited? How does the bank store cord blood? How experienced is the cord blood bank? Is the cord blood bank financially stable and profitable? Ask the bank you’re considering what it would do with your cord blood if the company went out of business. Look for a company with a reasonable plan to accommodate customers. For additional information, visit www.cordbloodadvantage.com to learn more.

Stock Market And Investment Mantra

The term investment is no longer a complexity, especially related to stock market in India. Right from corporates, professionals, homemakers to students, the scope of investing has influenced all. It is no surprise if you find most of the people glued to the television or news portals to have a glimpse of the latest market news once the trading hours start. The stock prices in India get displayed in the news channels and portals facilitating investors to view the same. Buying and selling decisions depend on the market news as well as latest statistics of stock prices in India.

What do you expect from your investment or what are the objectives behind your investing in the Indian stock market? Obviously it is creation of wealth and optimizing it. Smart investment is all about buying stocks at the appropriate time and holding them until the right time approaches for selling. Not all stocks witness a rise in their value; your time and efforts on research, knowledge and staying updated with market news will help you choose stocks that would ensure maximum return on your investment.

One of the easiest tricks to experience a win-win situation in the Indian stock market is choosing stocks based on the performance of the company. So, you must be closely studying the rising and falling stock prices in India. How do you go forward with the choice factor? Consider the stock from the chart which you feel is consistent in its rising value. Find out the historical data and take into account the profit and turnover generated for a particular period of time, say five years at the minimum. If it is a renowned company, you will often come across its activities being published as part of market news. For long term investment in such a company, consider the long term profits and economic status; for short term investment, do take into account the performance over a short duration, say at least six months. Once you are confident enough about a particular stock that promises returns, you can proceed with the buying.

Usmle Question Bank Results A Usmle Success Indicator

The effectiveness and success of any USMLE review is heightened by a valid and discriminating appraisal of all its aspects. Evaluation is a part and parcel of any teaching-learning activity. It is an integral element in the proper organization of learning. It is in no sense functionally separated from it.

Testing, measuring, marking and making reports, which are the most familiar instruments of evaluation should be considered and treated as factors in the business of bringing about better retention and mastery in a USMLE board preparation.

According to the Dictionary of Education, evaluation is the process of ascertaining or judging the value or amount of something by careful appraisal. It is the process of making judgments that are to be used as a basis for planning the teaching and learning environment. It involves improving the product, which speaks of the medical students, the process or plan which is signified by the USMLE review program and the goals which is set on the first day of the review session together with the students.

Evaluating the results of your USMLE question bank practice test exercises will determine many aspects in terms of your growth or development for the USMLE Steps preparation as well as the efficiency of the methods and strategies utilized in the USMLE review. The results provide useful data by:
revealing your specific points of strength and weakness in the process of teaching and learning as well as relearning
providing opportunities for devising new methods of instruction and review materials or resources
measuring the validity and reliability of the instruction and review that you received in the review program
making you familiar with your own results, thus helping you to understand your own high and low potential for learning as well as help you create more positive methods and system of addressing related roadblocks for licensing examination success
objectively and systematically identifying your needs for additional resources and aids for review as well as provide useful data for your progress

On the above mentioned value of the results of your USMLE question bank practice tests, it is noteworthy to mention that evaluation and measurement are two different things. To measure would mean to determine the extent while to evaluate is to consider all facets that will most likely contribute to the soundness of the test, results, process and subject matter being evaluated.

The most common form of evaluation that medical students go through in preparing for the USMLE Steps is answering practice test exercises with questions that were taken from a USMLE question bank. The results of these test exercises whether evaluated cumulatively or separate with each subject matter serves as the best indicator for USMLE success.

The Federal Trade Commission has finalized a policy statement clarifying that the agency will not

The Federal Trade Commission has finalized a policy statement clarifying that the agency will not take enforcement action under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) or the FTC Act against companies that are attempting to collect the debts of deceased consumers, if the companies communicate with someone who is authorized to pay debts from the estate of the deceased.

The policy statement also emphasizes that debt collectors may not mislead relatives to believe that they are personally liable for a deceased consumer’s debts, or use other deceptive or abusive tactics. Family members typically are not obligated to pay the debts of a deceased relative from their own assets. The FDCPA limits whom debt collectors may contact after a loved one has died to people such as the deceased person’s spouse and the executor or administrator of the deceased person’s estate.

Since the FDCPA was enacted in 1977, state probate laws have changed, and now, less formal procedures often govern the appointment or selection of those who are responsible for the disposition of the estate. In many instances, there may be no formal executor or administrator of an estate. In the enforcement policy statement issued today, the Commission seeks to reconcile the FDCPA’s requirements with current trends in state probate law.

In keeping with the FTC’s October 2010 proposed policy statement the final policy statement specifies that the agency will not take law enforcement action under the FDCPA if a debt collector communicates about a deceased person’s debts with that person’s spouse, the executor or administrator of the deceased person’s estate, or anyone else who is authorized to pay the debts from assets in the estate. The final policy statement also: Describes how debt collectors may communicate with family members and others to locate someone who is authorized to pay the deceased person’s debts from the estate, and specifies that collectors may not mislead individuals into believing that they have the authority to pay the decedent’s debts when they do not. Specifies that, in seeking to locate someone who is authorized to pay the deceased person’s debts from the estate, collectors may not reveal or refer to the debts, but may say they wish to discuss payment of the deceased person’s bills. States that in keeping with the FDCPA’s prohibition on unfair, deceptive, or abusive collection practices, debt collectors may not contact family members and others at unusual or inconvenient times or places. Emphasizes that, in communicating with someone who is authorized to pay the debts from assets of the deceased person’s estate, collectors must avoid creating the misleading impression that the individual is personally liable or could be required to pay using his or her own assets, or assets held jointly with the deceased person.

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